History of the Renewable Bioproducts Institute (RBI)
The Renewable Bioproducts Institute (RBI) is the current stage of the evolution of the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) which was originally named the Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) founded in October 1929 in the state of Wisconsin.
In the beginning, IPC was created to provide science, technology and education in support of the pulp and paper industry, a rapidly growing sector of the economy whose executives recognized the need for employees specifically trained in the scientific processes of papermaking.
It was out of that need that an undergraduate program was initially developed to provide technical training to local mill personnel. The curriculum applied a liberal arts philosophy to the teaching of science and technology. Faculty would encourage imagination and creative thinking, grounded in thorough knowledge of fundamental research procedures. This educational philosophy continues today.
With a rich tradition upon which to build and a progressive attitude toward evolving technologies and practices, the Institute flourished as it was led by a succession of individuals who preserved its integrity, but allowed enough flexibility to adapt to the changing times. In those changing times, IPC became the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST).
With the boom of Information Technology in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Board of Trustees approved a plan to relocate to the Georgia Institute of Technology campus. The move would align the Institute with a premier research university with significant strengths in engineering and science, including the relatively new computer science and technology field.
Both challenges and opportunities lay ahead. The new millennium saw the escalation of the numerous social issues that had plagued the latter half of the previous decade. The widespread use of constantly improving communication devices solidified the concept of a global marketplace.
Mergers, consolidations and weak domestic and global economic conditions led to a series of challenges unlike anything the pulp and paper industry had seen before. It was even more apparent that a permanent alliance was critical for the Institute’s survival.
The two officially merged in 2003. The Institute became one of Georgia Tech’s four large interdisciplinary research institutes, continuing to offer graduate degrees in paper science and engineering. The integration was declared complete in 2004.
For the next decade, IPST built on the rich traditions of the past and continued to evolve as tremendous changes took place in economics, manufacturing, environmental policies and industry objectives and as the explosion of research technology opened even more doors to advances the paper industry never imagined.
In May 2014, the evolution of IPST would entail a new name, the Renewable Bioproducts Institute (RBI), and an expanded scope of work and research. The move enabled the Institute to broaden its appeal to research investors seeking to unlock the potential of biomass materials for a range of products, not simply limited to paper.
That same month, RBI received a $43.6 million gift from the Institute of Paper Chemistry Foundation (IPCF). This major grant, one of the single largest gifts in Georgia Tech’s history, affirmed the Renewable Bioproducts Institute’s position as a leading driver of the future of the forest bioproducts industry.
The significant endowment supports engineering students who are advance the mission of RBI through their faculty-directed research.
RBI boasts some of the top minds in the fields of chemical and biomolecular engineering, chemistry, mechanical engineering and materials science and engineering covering a wide range of research areas in both bioproducts and bioprocessing.
Defining Moments by Year
U.S. paper companies took the lead in what would eventually become the conservation movement.
David Clark Everest, an early advocate of recycling and environmental protection, observed, "There is only one boat in this industry, and everyone who has anything to do with the pulp and paper is on it." His insights into changes related to conservation, forest management, labor relations, and the role of government in regulating business were unequaled.
October 12, 1929
The Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) was incorporated as an educational institution in affiliation with Lawrence College in Appleton, Wisconsin.
October 29, 1929
Black Monday - The Great Depression began. The kraft industry and by extension the container industry were hardest hit.
First Institute building is erected on seven acres at the east end of the Lawrence campus in Appleton.
Nearing completion on E. South River Street, across from the Alexander gymnasium of Lawrence college, is the new Institute of Paper Chemistry building, being constructed and equipped at a cost of $90,000. It will house the new pulp and paper graduate school. The new institute which is affiliated with Lawrence college, trains technical workers in the field of paper chemistry and technology.
Work on the new building was started about May 1, and it is expected the structure will be ready for formal dedication on Sept. 23. It will house the classes of the new course at the opening of school this fall. Twenty-five students are expected to enroll. They will be tutored by a staff of five full time professors and five part-time professors.
The building is the only one of its nature in the United States. The work offered by the school also is unique, because it is a venture in a new field. The experiment is being watched by and has the endorsement of the leading manufactures in all lines of the paper industry.
(The Appleton Post Cresent)
The Papermaker bookplate donated by Dard Hunter, became the IPC logo. It originally appeared in the Book of Trades by Christoff Weigle
December 18, 1930
The first technical report issued by IPC was published in the Paper Trade Journal and was titled, "Alkaline Pulping Reactions of the Long Leaf Pine." It was written by H.F. Lewis and E.R. Laughlin.
September 23, 1931
The Institute of Paper Chemistry formally opened, and President Herbert Hoover sent his congratulations.
IPC developed cooperative research with Dupont and Celotex to implement the clay and starch in paper manufacturing.
June 23, 1932
J.C. Kimberly, who donated $100,000 to build a new library in the memory of his father, J.A. Kimberly, laid the cornerstone of the library for IPC.
The IPC Membership Reserve Fund was established to set aside a fraction of each company's dues for research.
Four degrees of doctor of philosophy and one master of science (the first degrees ever granted by the Institute) were conferred by IPC during the annual commencement exercises.
January 15, 1934
Equipment to accurately measure the brightness of all types of paper has been developed by IPC.
March 8, 1934
Henry M. Writson, president of Lawrence College and secretary of the Institute, described the four-year growth of IPC. From a small institution located in a gymnasium with a single professor, to a school with two buildings, a staff of 42 persons, and an annual budget that grew from $25,000 to $140,000. Some of the world's finest equipment, laboratories, and a complete research library have attracted support from hundreds of the largest companies in the world.
IPC laboratory tests identify the first elucidation of gloss measurements on paper products.
June 17, 1935
The Institute library issued publications each month to member mills, offering them the opportunity to request and receive additional information, charts, and data on matters in which they were particularly interested.
Sixteen first-year IPC students started classes September 23rd by visiting a logging camp to obtain first hand knowledge of logging operations, measuring wood, studying the cost of wood from the stump to the car, and general conservation policies.
Charles Herty developed the technology to use southern pine (groundwood plus semibleached kraft) for newsprint.
A patent was issued to IPC for B. Rowland's "Prosize" research, one of the earliest dispersed rosin sizes which increased sizing efficiency by 100%.
Even as late as 1939, most U.S. papermakers were confident that there would be no war in Europe. However, once war was declared, there was "a rush of purchases" and hoarding. The industry also experienced a pulp shortage because imports from Scandinavia were blockaded.
The high-speed fourdrinier machine began to replace the cylinder machines for high volume production of linerboard. Cylinder machines were slow and inefficient and tended to use lower grades and higher quantities of recycled fiber.
Chlorine dioxide manufacturing processes were developed to expand kraft pulping of southern pine. Prior to this, adequate brightness levels could not be obtained.
The first high-temperature, high-velocity Yankee hood with a single, large drying cylinder was commercialized and allowed for specialized papers and finishes at greater speeds.
IPC research developed a new application that used the centroid wavelength to improve measurements of optical properties with spectrophotometers, colorimeters, and reflectometers.
IPC established a contract with the Office of the Secret Service to develop fraudulent passport records.
Institute enrollment reached 60 students; all of whom were single males.
A laboratory explosion at IPC caused considerable damage.
By the end of 1941, the U.S. Army had substituted bleached sulphite pulp for cotton linters in the manufacture of smokeless powder. The industry tried to respond as an increase in government purchases made it obvious that 1942 demands would far outstrip capacity. A plan was developed to allocate wood pulp on the basis of essentiality simplify and standardize paper grades and conserve all materials and facilities.
Due to a shortage of chlorine, the industry changed its bleaching processes to cut chlorine consumption by 10%.
The first waste-paper drive was held in an effort to provide pulp for fiberboard needs; U.S. kraft capacity expanded. Other solutions included limiting paper consumption by civilians and reducing the size of the margins in newspapers and books.
It was obvious that there was going to be a paper shortage. Waste paper drives began in paper mill towns. IPC in cooperation with the federal government established Appleton, Wisconsin, as an experimental center for the recovery of waste paper.
IPC acquired one of the first electron microscopes in the U.S. and began to study the ultrastructure of fibers.
IPC research improved measurements of absorption, strength, and mechanical properties by evaluating fiber bonding using coefficients of the Kubelka?Munk scattering theories.
IPC enrollment fell to almost zero during World War 11 as many of the students were drafted into the service.
As part of its war effort, the U.S. government began to experiment with a
concentration-production plan. It had considerable impact on the pulp and paper industry. One of the problems was the possible curtailment of newspapers and the effect that this would have on freedom of the press.
Researchers at IPC developed a method to standardize brightness measurements and continued to provide standard brightness samples for instrument calibration to laboratories throughout the world.
Eight IPC graduates received their Ph.D. degrees during commencement exercises.
IPC directed research to search for a remedy for stream pollution from waste sulphite liquor. IPC investigated the use of this effluent as a binder in blacktop highway construction.
July 30, 1942
S. Parsons of IPC developed a technique for evaluating the optical characteristics of paper as a function of fiber classification.
John G. Strange of IPC was called to Washington by the War Production Board to serve as Chief of the War Products Development Section of the Pulp and Paper Division.
October 29, 1942
A patent was granted to IPC for research conducted by Ben W. Rowland and Douglas Fronmuller for a new method of scouring wool.
The industry devoted many of its technical meetings to devising solutions for wartime packaging needs. Two separate conventions were held to discuss the development of special boxes for the military.
IPC developed technology to use guar gum as a strength additive when supplies of locust bean gum were cut off in World War II.
The National Council for Stream Improvement (NCSI) was created by the nation's pulp and paper industry to address liquid waste.
Twenty IPC graduates were awarded degrees at the commencement exercises.
November 11, 1943
J.A. Van den Akker of the research staff of IPC granted a patent for his invention of an apparatus for measuring the water resistance of paper. The patent rights were assigned to the Institute
A U.S. patent was assigned to H.F. Lewis and Irwin A. Pearl for research on the preparation of azobenzene sulfonate.
Louis Wise of IPC wrote an authoratative book on wood chemistry. IPC research developments included a spray burner for sulfur; the pulping of different species of hardwoods; methods for measuring printability of paper; wax emulsions for sizing and waterproofing paper; laboratory finishes that were resistant to heat, water, and acid; and high humidity resistant containers and packaging.
Waste-paper drives picked up momentum as the U.S. Victory Wastepaper Campaign set its goal at 666,000 tons of waste paper per month.
Ph.D. degrees were bestowed on five graduates of IPC.
John Wiley and Sons published a 600-page book titled, The Chemistry of Cellulose, authored by Emil Heuser of IPC. According to John Strange, there were more than 100 corporations with a total of 400 plants backing the Institute, which had a yearly operating budget of approximately $500,000. Current research at IPC was largely related to the war effort and could not be discussed. IPC expended more than 30,000 man-hours in testing work for the Quartermaster Corps alone.
A U.S. patent was assigned to B.W. Rowland and D. Fronmuller for research on the processes for preparing sheet rubber.
Thanks to research performed by Boris Berkman of IPC, milkweed floss was developed as a kapok substitute when the U.S. supply was cut from Japanese occupation of Java.
Twenty-six faculty and staff members of IPC were cited in the directory American Men and Women of Science.
July 18, 1944
A U.S. patent was assigned to B.W. Rowland, D. Fronmuller, and J.A. Van den Akker of IPC for research on the methods of determining the receptivity of sheet materials to coating and inks.
July 20, 1944
A Canadian patent was assigned to J.W. Swanson for his research on mannogalactan adhesive compositions.
IPC biochemistry pilot plant developed technology to prevent sulphite liquor wastes being dumped into streams, a process which later contributed to the production of penicillin and the sulfa drugs.
IPC developed a fourperson house from waste paper to serve as temporary housing for persons left homeless in the war areas. Waste paper pressed into panels was assembled into a house in about an hour, at a cost of less than $110. The house was packaged in a bundle weighing 1,029 pounds.
The Sulfite Products Manufacturing Research League (SPMRL) established offices in the IPC Research Building.
Government surplus Quonset houses were offered to educational institutions. IPC acquired 10 houses after the sudden influx of married students.
Commercialization of the pressurized headbox allowed for higher speeds in paper production.
Developed during the war, the chain saw became commercially available and revolutionized timber harvesting.
Perhaps the single most important wartime contribution to the paper industry was the manufacture of new papers for new uses, such as waterproof boxes that could resist extremes of heat and cold. The board industry grew rapidly after the Army switched to kraft board and fiber boxes early in 1941. By 1944 it was estimated that nearly 3.5 million tons of paper boxes were being used for entirely new applications.
IPC constructed a new container research building devoted to the development of shipping containers and solutions to packaging problems. February 1945 From 1929 to this date, 200 patents were granted on research performed by IPC.
The National Council for Stream Improvement coordinated research with IPC to develop wastewater treatment technology to prevent damage to fish from mill discharges. June 2,1945 A new color blindness testing device was developed by IPC.
June 19, 1945
A Canadian patent was assigned to B.W. Rowland, D. Fronmuller, and J.A. Van den Akker for their research on testing apparatus and methods.
IPC, by government invitation, directed a national packaging and plastics research program to develop a plastic coating for paperboard packages with a higher liquid protection level than the wax compounds.
John Graff, of IPC, described two new methods for the identification of melamine and urea resins in wet?strength papers.
Commercialization of the differential drive used a single drive shift to control web tension, stabilize machine speed in each section improve the quality of paper produced.
Northern mills began to consider expanding to the South to take advantage of its vast supplies of pulpwood, which was replacing cotton, tobacco, and other field crops of earlier years. During 1946 and 1947, about 56 Million seedlings were planted on 60,000 new acres.
Postwar developments in the paper industry have led to new uses for paper. An increase in automobile touring spurred the demand for map paper, and growth in magazine (machine-coated) paper was strong. Drinking cups and milk bottles were now made from paper, and kraft paper was expected to be a growth sector. Other promising products included hot-melt-coated papers, freezer papers, transparent papers, laminates with paper bases, paper pipe, flexible packages, and vaporand leakproof items. It was obvious that packages, particularly new and exciting ones, were arousing the most interest.
As the industry grew after the war, papermakers took a more scientific attitude toward the efficient manufacture of paper. To stay competitive with other countries, the U.S. industry had to modernize its obsolete plants.
Two areas of rapid growth were containers and dissolving pulps, whose market was spurred by the demand for rayon, cellophane, and cellophane derivatives such as the rayon cord used in automobile tires. As a result, this sector of the industry was at first very profitable.
The neutral sulfite semi chemical (NSSC) process commercialized the use of Aspens and other hardwoods in the corrugating industry. The new process later offered substantial economic benefits to northern paper mills, since technology at that time was limited to pine utilization.
IPC performed extensive field studies to evaluate the performance of various shipping and container materials for the food industries.
George Sears of IPC received a certificate for meritorious service in the research and development of materials for the Army's food program.
IPC research supported war efforts by developing new products which included, special map papers, including fluorescent maps, a paper house, testing of packages for K-rations, and fortified paperboard v-boxes.
Examples of new war-time products developed by IPC include: techniques for hardening wood as a substitute for scarce teakwood in naval vessels; the production of chemicals from wood tars used as antiseptics, food additives, and in textiles; the development of new adhesives and coatings for specialty war papers, including fungus resistant, moldproof, and water resistant map papers.
Rag paper mills developed a plan to purchase upgraded market cotton for use in papermaking during 1947.
IPC Container Research Laboratory acquired a pilot corrugator that was originally used as a lamp shade wrapper production machine.
L. Forman's pulping research at IPC established the use of southern pine in paper manufacturing and its eventual expansion to bleach kraft papers in the Southeastern U.S.
January 11, 1947
IPC enrolled 44 new students, 41 of whom were World War II veterans. March 1947 The third volume in the series Bibliography of Paper Making (1936-45) was compiled and edited by C.J. West at IPC and published by TAPPI.
IPC hosted a paper industry symposia on research and commercial uses of enzymes in paper manufacturing.
A Canadian patent was assigned to B.W. Rowland and N.A. Kjelson for their research on paper web manufacture.
August 21, 1947
IPC research by Wink and Van den Akker identified a new method for determining water resistance of insulation-board sheathing for the Insulation Board Institute. IPC lignin research performed by Irwin Pearl identified opportunities that later developed into new commercial products, including the production of vanillin as a flavoring.
October 21, 1947
A U.S. patent was assigned to Reineck and Dunlap for their research on thermosetting plastics from redwood pulp and furfuryl alcoholformaldehyde resins.
IPC research and testing of the corrugated v-box established it as a cost effective substitute for cumbersome wooden crates and solid fiber boxes. The beer and citrus industries rapidly switched from wooden crates to paperboard cartons.
A Canadian patent was assigned to Edward Reineck and Isaac R. Dunlap for their research on thermo-setting plastics.
A U.S. patent was assigned to J.W. Swanson for his research on the processes for producing mannogalactan mucilages.
August 3, 1948
A Canadian patent was assigned to H.F. Lewis and Irwin A. Pearl for their research on the preparation of salts of azobenzene sulfonic acid.
A U.S. patent was assigned to J.A. Van den Akker for his research on film extensibility testing methods and apparatus.
Research at IPC led to the development of a method and an apparatus to measure the surface bonding strength of paper.
Research at IPC to improve the stiffness of corrugating medium identified an in-line saturating process that used sulfur to improve the stiffness and the total strength of the final container.
IPC research developed special filter papers 1478, used to sample the atmosphere for radioactive material. Later this filter paper was used on U2 planes.
A U.S. patent was assigned to G.D. Knight and B.W. Rowland for their research on the methods of continuously coating porous sheets.
September 20, 1949
A U.S. patent was assigned to Irwin A. Pearl and L.E. Wise for their research on the methods of preparing phenolic materials from lignin.
A U.S. patent was assigned to J. d'A Clark and S.D. Wells for their research on an apparatus for forming fibrous sheets or paperboard.
Sweden installed the first commercial Kamyr continuous digester. Capable of producing 50 tons per day, it featured a down flow digester with a balanced high pressure pocket feeder.
Kraft pulping established its rise to dominance in the chemical pulp markets due to two successful developments: the Tomlinson Recovery Furnace and the perfection of multistage bleaching, which incorporated a chemical sequence with chlorine dioxide.
IPC developed improved methods for measuring the absolute reflectance of high-reflectance media and established an industry standard that was implemented by the National Bureau of Standards.
The development and commercial use of chlorine dioxide made it possible to produce very white pulp from trees such as the southern pine. The availability of chlorine dioxide therefore was instrumental in establishing the Southeastern United States as a dominant pulping area.
Research at IPC led to the development of a device to form a single flute of corrugated medium so that it could be tested for its crush resistance. The forming was done under similar heat and pressure conditions found on corrugators.
The use of polymers as retention aids made it possible to use large amounts of inexpensive fillers.
The development of AKD cellulose reactive size led to the use of paperboard for milk cartons, made on the acid side of cylinder machines and wax coated inside and out after the carton was formed. Refrigeration and handling frequently caused wax to flake off into the milk.
Research conducted by Van den Akker and Hardacker of IPC helped define quantitative relationships between fiber morphology and paper physical properties.
A U.S. patent was assigned to G.R. Sears, R.D. Rae, and J.A. Van den Akker for their research on impact and acceleration testing.
A U.S. patent was assigned to J.A. Van den Akker for his research on creep testing apparatus.
July 3, 1950
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on the process of making improvements related to bendable sheets.
September 5, 1950
A U.S. patent was assigned to B.W. Rowland and G.D. Knight for their research on the porous web treating apparatus.
Size press solutions containing high levels of fillers increased solids in coated board production by up to 35%.
May 15, 1951
A U.S. patent was assigned to J.W. Swanson for his research on the dextrinization of mannogalactans.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on the methods of making corrugated boards.
A Canadian patent was assigned to J. d'A Clark and S.D. Wells for IPC research on an apparatus for forming fibrous sheets or paperboard.
A U.S. patent was assigned to Otto Kress for his research on oxidizers for black liquor.
Professor Brauns of IPC authored a definitive book on lignin chemistry.
After the experiences of World War II, the Korean War had relatively little impact on the paper industry because plans for mobilization had been clearly laid in 1948 and 1949.
IPC's student population, which had dropped significantly during World War 11, rebounded to 60 students.
IPC research identified practical uses for sulfite liquor, including drugs to fight histoplasmosis and an airborne disease known as Valley Fever.
IPC directed multiyear program in American Newspaper Publishers Association to develop methods for measuring the printability of papers.
The development of new paper products was impaired by a serious shortage of properly trained personnel.
A U.S. patent was assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research on method of making bivanillyl.
The paper house constructed during World War II was dismantled in good condition after eight years.
September 24, 1952
An English patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on the process of making improvements to container board manufacturing.
Kyle Ward Jr., of IPC, was elected chairman of the American Chemical Society's Division of Cellulose Chemistry. Dr. Ward was credited with synthesizing the first member of nitrogen mustard group, chemical agents that were used in the treatment of cancer. He also performed pioneer research on naval stores such as turpentines, gums, and resins and on cellulose products, principally cotton.
The first suction pickup rolls were introduced to remove sheets from the wire and increased machine speeds to 2000 feet per minute.
IPC initiated a baseline study for the continuous evaluation of commercial corrugating mediums. The industry sent samples of their medium to IPC for a comparative evaluation on the IPC pilot corrugator.
Stock deaeration (i.e., deculator) was added to the paper machine to remove air from stock, improve production rates, formation, and manufacturing efficiencies.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee and G.R. Sears for their research on methods and apparatus for testing paperboard.
The IPC analysis lab answered thousands of requests for testing of paper products each year, most notable was the lawsuit settled on the spontaneous combustion of insulation. IPC proved that the material actually resisted burning.
New paper products were identified through IPC research including a paper base used for new types of carpet, draperies, lamp shades, flavored fish wrappers.
Improved surface bonding characteristics for paper were the result of studies of embossing and calendering performed by IPC.
IPC dedicated a new activities building. Board Chairman Ernest Mahler said that IPC now had 125,000 square feet of working area, and its staff had been built up to include 215 people. Total cost of the building was $368,700.
June 9, 1953
A U.S. patent was assigned to S.D. Wells for his research on the production of fiber from flax straw.
Working with IPC scientists, the United States Movidyn Corporation developed a formulation to control the microorganisms causing slime formation in pulp and paper mills.
July 7, 1953
A U.S. patent: was as assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research on vanillimino ethyl ether and its salts of anhydrous acids. July 13, 1953 IPC created a new department for graphic arts.
July 21, 1953
A U.S. patent was assigned to M.F. Skalmusky, Kimberly & Carlton Root, and R.C. McKee for their research on methods of testing sheet materials.
Harry Lewis made a plea for better utilization of wood resources stating "that the industry must break with old traditions and get into the business of making alcohol, yeast, lignin ethers, or vanillin."
The first commercial use of a cold blow in the bottom of a Kamyr digester improved paper strength by up to 20%.
IPC instrumentation research studies led to the development of Beta-Gages.
U.S. production of pulp and paper increased beyond 40 million tons per year.
National Cash Register introduced the first carbonless paper (NCR Paper) for use in producing duplicate forms.
January 26, 1954
A Canadian patent was assigned to Sulfite Products Corporation for research on filters for ultraviolet radiations.
Standards developed at IPC for fungus resistance in paper and paperboard were presented for approval to the National Standards Committee.
U.S. patent was assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research on salts of vanillic acid esters.
IPC received a grant to study usage of large amounts of spent sulfite liquor.
Bark treatments developed at IPC led to new additives for well-drilling lubricants, storage batteries, and leather products.
The U.S. paper industry annually employed 269,000 people and spent 9 billion dollars in product enhancements.
In 1954, IPC had a budget of $1,000,000, 225 staff members, 40 graduate students, and 16,000 volumes in the Library. Construction was started on the IPC General Activities Building.
A. Wiley of IPC received certificate of merit from Nash Conservation Awards program for his outstanding industry sponsored research to reduce stream pollution. IPC started major research program to identify new uses of spent sulfite liquor.
IPC celebrated its 25th anniversary at the 18th annual Executives' Conference.
IPC acquired personal memorabilia of Dard Hunter, a renowned collector of paper and related materials from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
IPC began investigation of genetic influences of wood fiber properties.
The first commercial yeast production facility was opened and it produced 6,000 tons of dry yeast per year from the wood sugars of cooked wood fibers in the pulping process. Distilled sulfite liquor was used to create artificial beef bouillon while other byproducts of the yeast production were also used to create nucleic acid as a diet supplement for the elderly.
Other chemical byproducts of yeast production included a leather tanning compound, stiffening agents used in making paperboard and adhesives, and a synthetic rubber. Sulfite liquor was used in making battery plates because it reduced acid scale buildup and tripled the life of the battery. Research was also conducted on wood sugar derivatives for use as an animal feed supplement and for the treatment of ketosis. Other projects that showed promise from waste products from pulp and paper manufacturing included protein rich feeds for mink, human food supplements, concrete dispersing agent, and several pharmaceuticals, including a remedy for athletes foot.
A U.S. patent was assigned to D.L. Wolfe and E.A. Ruddy for their research on paper splicing. Byproducts of the pulping process were used to create new commercial products such as vanilla flavoring, additives for gasoline, artificial beef flavoring, and road binding materials.
Per capita paper consumption in the United States was 220 lbs in 1920,254 lbs in 1940, rose to 338 lbs in 1954, and was expected to grow to 500 lbs by 1975.
IPC, TAPPI, and CPPA jointly sponsored a four-day International Fundamental Research Conference. Delegates from Europe, Asia, and Canada were among the 225 attending the symposium.
Three hundred world authorities from the paper industry attend an educational conference held at IPC on the fundamentals of the paper machine.
Contracts for new products under development at IPC included wall-paper that kills flies, paper grown in a test-tube, paperboard boxes that did not soften when wet, a paper raincoat, a built in drinking straw that would appear automatically when the soda bottle was opened, and a fish wrapper treated with taste-bud stimulants which improved the taste of the fish.
IPC maintains 23 different insect colonies which were used in research for the creation of bug-resistant food containers. IPC research on combining hard and soft wood fibers for pulping gave paper companies an economical advantage.
IPC was recognized as a world center for research in pulp, paper, and paperboard industries.
The Institute had 239 staff members, including 200 educational and research staff, and 39 administrative and support personnel.
New fungicidal coatings for citrus paperboard cartons allowed fruits to be shipped without refrigeration. The new boxes saved shippers and fruit growers money due to lower weight and lack of refrigeration requirements.
By 1954,90% of California's citrus crop was moved to market in paperboard containers rather than wood crates.
IPC developed methods for removing asphalt impurities in waste paper used to create recycled paperboard.
September 3, 1954
At IPC, paper-like fibers were being grown from thousands of microscopic fungi in a large vessel containing water and dextrose. Within 48 hours, 40 lbs of pulp-like fibers were removed from the vessel. Paper produced by using the artificial fiber could not be distinguished from tree-bred paper.
J.A. Van den Akker of IPC conducted research on the flow of fiber suspension and the effects of turbulence.
IPC was appointed custodian of TAPPI fiber library which contained more than 359 specimens.
Forest products companies initiated a project for the genetic improvement of southern pine with emphasis on growth and yield. CLUPAK, an extensible paper used in bulk packaging, was first introduced and commercialized.
Pocket ventilators were first introduced in France as Madeline rolls to enhance drying by uniform extraction of moist air. The Concora Medium Fluter, an improvement of the single-fluter, was designed by the Container Corporation of America and built by Liberty Engineering. This device has remained relatively unchanged.
Five new married student housing units were being constructed at IPC.
John G. Strange was appointed third president of IPC. He served until 1974. 1956 In the Southern United States, pulp and paper were now as important as cotton and fruit thanks to good forestry practices, scientific research, and the partnership of government and industry. Paper was the fifth largest U.S. export.
J.P. Brezinski of IPC conducted research on the creep properties of paper. A single-facer corrugator was donated to IPC. The machine had the capability of corrugating speeds in excess of 1000 ft/min and corrugate in several flute profiles. Support equipment such as roll stands, preheaters, numerous corrugating rolls, and medium and liner showers were also included in the donation.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.P. Whitney, Shu-Tang Han, and J.L. Davis of IPC for their research on the treatment of spent sulfite liquor.
A U.S. patent was assigned to W.M. Van Horn, B.F. Sherna, W.H. Shockley, and J.H. Conkey for their research on sheets comprising filaments of fungi.
Controlled crown rolls were installed to keep sheets from wrinkling on the web and improve machine speed. IPC developed a wax treated corrugated box for the wet and cold storage conditions needs of the poultry industry.
J.A. Van den Akker of IPC conducted research on the importance of fiber strength in sheet strength measurements.
A panel of experts told pulp and paper industry executives at IPC that despite possession of the world's greatest fiber resource for paper, Russia would not contribute greatly to the world's fiber need. IPC ranked 51st of 104 universities in the U.S. for chemical doctorals.
J.A. Van den Akker of IPC conducted research on the structural aspects of bonding. IPC had 270 staff members and 66 regular students. Most of the building complex on the Appleton campus was complete and more than 130 companies were members of the Institute, representing approximately 80% of U.S. production of pulp and paper.
In the late '50s and early '60s, milk carton grade paperboard was made on the fourdriner SBK and was polyethylene coated.
The development of xerography and other nonimpact printing processes began to create large new markets for the thermal papers later used in computers, copiers, and facsimile units.
IPC started product development of low ash filter papers for the U.S. Air Force.
An automatic computer, described as a baby brother to the gigantic electronic brains used in the military and space programs, was installed at IPC.
Gas, electric, and infrared dryers promoted higher drying speeds and reduced capital investments as well as energy consumption. Alkaline sizing was introduced to provide higher resistance to liquid penetration, improved strength, stiffness, and manufacturing economics. This process resulted in the use of coated cartons for liquid products, such as milk, which had been dominated by glass for more than 35 years.
IPC student enrollment grew to 73, including 27 Ph.D. candidates.
Improved continuous digesters were first commercialized as a pulping tool that improved capacity by a factor of 6 and significantly reduced sulfur (odor) emissions, labor costs, and capital investments to produce pulp.
March 14, 1961
A Canadian patent was assigned to J.R. Peckham for his research on bleaching pulp.
May 9, 1961
A U.S. patent was assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research on fungicide recovery from cabbage palmetto.
June 6, 1961
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.P. Whitney, Shu-Tang Han, J.F. Bakken, and R.B. Kesler for their research on the treatment of spent sulfite liquor. A U.S. patent was assigned to M.L. Murray and K. Ward, Jr., for their research on the method of making pulp.
IPC forest geneticists documented genetic heredity of wood and fibers and the beneficial impact of selecting and breeding trees for their pulp and paper properties. Hybrid formers (Inverform) were commercially introduced in Australia as the first high-speed, multi-ply machine.
IPC enrollment dropped to 54, and a policy reversal in the academic program allowed students to be admitted for only the M.S. degree. Previously, all entering students were expected to complete the Ph.D. program.
Foils were first introduced to aid in dewatering and improve machine speeds. Pilot high-speed corrugator. The Louis Calder Foundation provided a $600,000 donation to IPC for the construction of a student center and dormitory, named the Louis Calder Center.
W. Wink and R. Van Eperen of IPC developed an improved Zero-Span Tensile Test. March 1962 IPC developed a fiber load-elongation recorder for automatic recording of the loadelongating characteristics of single papermaking fibers.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee of IPC for his research on the process of impregnating an assembled corrugated container board. July 1962 More than $216,000 were awarded in scholarships to each full?time U.S. student at the Institute.
IPC received a second Glidden Company Lectureship in Chemistry which made it possible to bring an outstanding chemical scientist for lectures and seminars.
The Ventanip press was first introduced in a South Carolina mill.
IPC developed a "Compression Strength Formula for Boxes," that was commonly referred to as the "McKee Formula" and was the prime ingredient for further boxboard development.
IPC received 5490 visitors over the past year from 22 foreign countries, including delegations of papermakers and researchers from Europe and Japan.
The 200th doctoral thesis at IPC was successfully defended by a student and accepted by the Faculty Thesis Committee.
Dr. Otto Kress, former Institute technical director and faculty member, donated $50,000 to the Institute for the establishment of a scholarship fund.
A high-speed motion picture developed in the IPC Container Section showed the environment within the corrugator to which corrugating medium is subjected and the interplay between the medium and various parts of the machine during actual corrugation. This process was enthusiastically received by industrial groups in Europe and the United States.
A total of 1194 reprints of IPC staff technical papers were mailed by the editorial service in response to requests last year.
April 16, 1963
A U.S. patent was assigned to F.V.E. Vaurio for his research on the process of watermarking paper products.
July 9, 1963
A Canadian patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on container board.
IPC 1478 filter paper, developed in 1950, was discussed publicly for the first time at the Executives' Conference. The paper was used by government agencies to filter radioactive particles of about 1 micron (40 millionths of an inch) from the atmosphere. The collected particles provided a basis for the evaluation of radioactive debris in the atmosphere that may constitute a biological hazard.
The Louis W. and Maud Hill Family Foundation of St. Paul, Minnesota, made a grant of approximately $110,000 to The Institute of Paper Chemistry for fundamental research in forest genetics.
Asten-Hill Manufacturing Company donated $50,000 to the IPC scholarship fund.
A library of more than 500 chemical compounds derived from or related to wood was maintained in the lignin chemistry laboratories of the Institute. The fractionation, isolation, and identification processes applied to spent liquor, wood, leaves, roots, bark, and twigs continued to reveal new and previously unknown chemical compounds.
An instrument developed for the study of paper webs was in use in IPC's graphic arts laboratories. Among its several new features was its ability to characterize the dynamic load-elongation behavior of paper webs.
R. McKee and J. Whitsitt of IPC, conducted research on multiwall sack performance and the relationship between sack performance and sack paper properties at 50% relative humidity.
The Landegger Foundation Inc., upon recommendation of Mr. Carl Landegger made a contribution of $25,000 to IPC's scholarship fund. A commercial mode of the new Automatic Color-Brightness Tester developed at IPC was displayed for the first time.
July 14, 1964
A U.S. patent was assigned to F.V.E. Vaurio for his research on chemical process of watermarking paper products. Forest genetics growth chamber developed by grant from Louis and Maud Hill Foundation.
October 27, 1964
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.B. Kelser for his research on coulometric titration.
Markets were developed for new products such as photocopy papers, paper textiles, and disposable hygienics, while the prepackaging of foods spurred the growth of pulp molding and the development of films, hot melts, and other papers intended especially for this use. Converting was more important, with 5000 converting plants using nearly three-quarters of U.S. production of paper and board.
The American Paper and Pulp Association and the National Paperboard Association merged to form the American Paper Institute. Included in the merger were a dozen or more semiautononmous paper associations affiliated with the APRA. The new organization focused on long-term policy, particularly in the areas of environmental management and economic forecasts.
The Institute Library continued to provide photocopy services by annually photocopying 3000 articles from 400 journals, totaling 22,000 pages of text. A growth chamber was added to the forest genetics building to supplement the facilities available for greenhouse and field testing in the IPC tree improvement program.
The Monsanto Company donated an ultrasonic impedometer to IPC. The instrument represented a comparatively new technique for the study of the rheological properties of materials.
Iowa became the second state to initiate research at IPC. Nebraska also had a cooperative program at the Institute for several years. The purpose of both programs was to establish new uses for agricultural products in the paper industry.
A group project titled "Studies of the Sheet Forming Process" was initiated for a three-year period starting August 1, 1965, at IPC. A group of 13 member and allied industry companies cooperated in the project.
An IPC study indicated ' that tree growth rate could be identified by callus growth rate in tissue culture.
The introduction of dry forming technology was first commercialized for disposable diaper products.
IPC forest geneticists developed triploid hybrid aspen. The hybrid trees, created by cross pollination between outstanding U.S. quaking aspen and tetraploid European aspen, were quickly recognized and accepted for their rapid growth, longer fibers, and higher specific gravity.
The method developed at IPC for the measurement of absolute reflectance was adopted by the National Bureau of Standards. December 20,1966 A U.S. patent was assigned to B.D. Skofronick and F.V.E. Vaurio for their research on the chemical watermarking applied to finished paper.
IPC awarded its 250th Ph.D. and graduated its 400th M.S. student the following year. A book titled Methods of Wood Chemistry was authored by B.L. Browning of IPC.
January 16, 1967
The pulp manufacture's research league stated that there had been steady improvement in the abatement of pollution from pulp mills.
February 21, 1967
According to API, the demand for all grades of paper and paperboard had caught up with supply resulting in astonishing volume increases and new products.
The United States used 52 million tons of paper during 1966. Of this, 46.6 million were domestically produced. In 1966, industry sales were $17 billion, profits were $920 million, and net worth of the industry was $8.7 billion.
February 24, 1967
The Inland Container Corporation Foundation of Indianapolis gave $1 million to IPC for educational purposes.
March 22, 1967
IPC signed an agreement from U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command for research for new chemotherapeutic agents as a treatment to malaria.
A new instrument, the Continuous Web Straining Device, was added to the IPC Graphic Arts Laboratories. The device measured the actual strain imparted to the paper and determined whether slippage occurred in closed nips. It also contained a shive counter to detect the number of shives in a roll of paper. IPC Board of Trustees approved a $5,000,000 development program that enabled IPC to increase its graduate student enrollment by one-third; improve the quality of its graduate education program; improve, extend, and accelerate its research activities; improve and greatly expand its activities relating to the collection, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of scientific and technological information; place its continuing education program on a yearround schedule; and to carry forward its long-range programs of education and research which it had undertaken on behalf of a group of growing industries.
A three-year grant of $119,000 was received from the Louis W. and Maud Hill Family Foundation of St. Paul, Minnesota. It supported bask forest genetics research and in particular a study of the genetic improvement of quaking and bigtooth aspen.
June 5, 1967
IPC awarded a record 16 doctorate degrees, marking the 250th doctorate degree and 387th Master degree conferred by IPC since 1929.
June 26, 1967
New alkaline pulping methods announced at TAPPI's 21st Conference described batch and continuous systems for high?yield kraft.
July 24, 1967
IPC initiated research on the chemical utilization of southern pine barks.
J.A. Van den Akker was the first recipient of a newly established TAPPI Research and Development Award.
IPC forest geneticists identified a new hybrid tree, a cross between a European poplar and a native bigtooth aspen. At 19 years old, it was 70 feet tall.
IPC acquired an experimental fourdrinier 30 ft long and capable of operating at speeds of 50 ft per minute.
J.A. Van den Akker, W.A. Wink, and R. Van Eperen of IPC conducted research on tearing resistance by the in?plane mode of tear that later replaced Elmendorf tear strength test as an industry standard.
October 2, 1967
IPC received a $200,000 gift from the Louis Calder Foundation.
October 4, 1967
A pilot waste disposal facility using reverse osmosis was installed at a local paper company for IPC research.
Mrs. Anna Schmierer was the first woman student admitted to the Institute since its founding in 1929.
Translations of foreign language technical articles in the Institute's "translation pool" had risen to about 2100. The pool was designed for the benefit of member companies.
An apparatus for blistering paper was designed and built in the Paper Evaluation Section laboratories for use in a study to explore the blistering of paper during heat?set printing.
Bronze metal forming wires began to commercially be replaced by plastic mesh fabrics because of improved production speed.
The first commercial use of air drying processes were introduced and resulted in an increase in absorbency and bulk of tissue paper by up to 100%.
Research was conducted at IPC on methods for measuring the moisture content in paper using an infrared radiation gage.
November 8, 1968
An English patent was assigned to IPC for research on improved method of treating fibrous material.
IPC developed an instrument for determining the suitability of papers for adhesive bonding. The Multisheet Absorption Tester measured the rate of oil absorption on the edge of a pad of paper.
February 18, 1969
A Canadian patent was assigned to N.S. Thompson and Ola A. Kaustinen for their research on oxidative pulping.
Lawson Winton produced triploid aspen trees by a tissue culture process. It was the first time that a woody plant was produced by this method. Callus tissue grown from branch segments of high-quality trees was maintained in artificial nutrient medium. After receiving growth hormones, the callus grew leafy shoots that became roots.
June 3, 1969
A U.S. patent was assigned to H.W. Nelson and C.L. Norton for their research on method of preventing smelt?water explosions.
IPC's Information Services Division announced a new electronic information service. Companies and organizations could choose from a variety of methods for acquiring scientific information and literature from the Institute.
A new instrument, the Differential Densitometer was developed by IPC to determine the optical unevenness of paper or printed matter.
Construction was started at IPC on a new 19,000 sq. ft. Continuing Education Center.
>> Class Photos - 1960's <<
The development of pressurized headboxes made modem high-speed paper machines possible. Later advances in pressurized nozzle design led to improved quality control.
CTMP/TMP, chemical thermomechanical pulping, was commercialized to increase capacity and reduce costs.
Layered headboxes made production of multilayer tissue products possible with the use of lower cost fiber furnished.
The first ozone bleaching patent was issued in Sweden. The paper strength problems associated with this bleaching technology would for years remain unresolved.
Displacement or dynamic bleaching introduced the ability to do three or four stage bleaching in a single unit which saved floor space and reduced capital costs. In spite of the excessive chemical consumption, these processes offered a unique and commercially viable alternative to standard bleaching systems.
January 27, 1970
A U.S. patent was assigned to A. J. Morak for his research on methods of treating paper with isocyanates blocked with cyclohexanol.
J.A. Van den Akker reported on IPC research conducted on the structure and tensile characteristics of paper.
Marilyn Kinsey, the first woman to receive a degree from IPC, was awarded a Master of Science Degree.
For the past 30 years, the IPC Aquatic Biology Group has conducted field measurements and laboratory investigations on the quality of waters receiving wastes from pulp and paper mills. Research was started at IPC on the relative permanence of today's papers in book publishing, sponsored by the Printing?Writing Paper Division of the American Paper Institute.
The development and commercialization of personal computers created an enormous demand for pin?fed bond papers.
The U.S. economic recession had a significant impact on the pulp and paper industry.
IPC mobilized its entire chemical research staff to meet deadlines required by the Corps of Engineers for analysis of effluents from mill outfalls.
IPC acquired a scanning electron microscope.
According to a survey conducted by William S. McClenahan, Director of Information Services at IPC, consumption of paper stock by U.S. mills in 1969 was shown to be approximately 12,000,000 tons.
Widespread application of twin-wire formers contributed to increased web speed, uniform finish, and faster water removal.
Due to soaring inflation and a wave of mergers and consolidations, more than 60 member companies had disappeared from the IPC ranks; member dues diminished.
IPC, in cooperation with Liberty Engineering and API, developed a tester to evaluate a length of corrugating medium for its ability to be fluted without exhibiting fractures. The device was quickly accepted, and just as rapidly outdated by commercial corrugating medium that was vastly improved and exceeded the capabilities of the tester.
New dynamic bioassay facilities were installed at IPC to study the toxicity in kraft mill wastes and to test for acute toxicity to fish.
William M. Baird, IPC Ph.D. candidate, received the first annual award from the Society of Midwest Microscopists for his work on the effect of dioxane?HCI treatment on warty layered paper.
IPC received a grant of $100,000 from the Environmental Protection Agency for the study of mill effluents.
IPC analyzed more than 30,000 effluent samples containing mercury and PCBs from 91 pulp and paper mills representing 44 companies.
Experimental headboxes donated to IPC were used to study paperweb forming and to evaluate furnishes and additives. High-speed drainage apparatus was installed to study the hydrodynamic behavior of table rolls, foils, and other stationary elements.
A recycling conference held to discuss updates on recycling in the paper industry was attended by representatives from the media, environmental and conservation groups, legislators, students, and the industry.
The Upper Great Lakes Regional Commission funded a pilot plant for the treatment of effluents using an experimental filter to treat industrial wastes.
Twenty-seven conservators and restorators attended a five-day museum seminar to learn more about works of paper. The conference was sponsored by IPC, the Institute for Conservation of Historic Artistic Works, and by a grant from the Smithsonian Institution.
Three IPC faculty members received the Outstanding Educators of America award for 1972.
Quartz-tube infrared driers were installed on the web offset press in the Graphic Arts Laboratories to study the tendency of coated paper to blister during ink drying.
IPC received a $40,000 research grant from the EPA to study sulfite mill evaporator condensates.
Consortia gave IPC a $60,000 research grant to study oxygen peroxide bleaching processes.
IPC developed paper testing equipment, including line-type clamps for improved gripping of flat specimens, zero-span jaws, and an apparatus for measuring in-plane tearing strength. A thousand hybrid aspen trees developed by IPC's forest genetics program survived their first outdoor growing season, with severe winds and temperatures ranging from 40 below zero to 70 degrees above zero.
IPC opened a pilot plant facility to identify a cost?effective method to dispose of evaporator condensates in a nonpolluting manner. The U.S. Air Force established a new contract with IPC to develop manufacturing procedures for low ash filter papers.
IPC's combination of energy dispersive x-ray analyzer and scanning electron microscope made it possible to analyze materials that could not normally be accommodated for viewing on the microscope's screen.
U.S. industries were hampered by the oil crisis. The paper industry increased focus on industry conservation. Within a decade, the paper industry had cut use of petroleum by 40% and had substantially increased the cogeneration of electric energy by burning byproducts. These efforts involve massive retrofitting of boilers and furnaces and involved investments of many millions of dollars.
K. HardeckeT and J. Brezinski publish results of IPC conducted research on individual fiber properties of commercial pulps.
May 21, 1973
The first International Technical Conference on Corrugated Cases was held in the Continuing Education Center at IPC.
February 27, 1973
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.B. Kesler for his research on the method and apparatus for the analysis of fluid suspensions.
December 4, 1973
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on the apparatus and method for testing the runnability of corrugating medium.
Harry Posner, Jr., was named fourth president of IPC and served until 1986.
Fiscal insolvency of IPC was averted through the generosity of several member companies who provided several hundred thousand dollars of emergency relief. The Membership Reserve Fund was replaced by a new plan which pooled member company dues to support cooperative research in areas that benefit the entire industry.
A Research Advisory Committee (RAC) composed of IPC member company representatives was commissioned to assist in the selection and execution of research projects.
August 13, 1974
A U.S. patent was assigned to N.S. Thompson, Nicholls, and Shu-Tang Han for their research on an apparatus and method for testing the runnability of corrugating medium.
Genetic improvements in trees and intensive silvi?culture were recognized as major contributors to industry productivity and profitability. Breeding and management programs were intensified across the nation; fusiform rust resistance strains of southern pine were developed and planted.
November 16, 1976
A U.S. patent was assigned to F.P. Lodzinski and L.R. Dearth for their research on a paper machine optical monitoring device that featured an integral standardizing optical window.
The first reported use of anthraquinone as a unique pulping catalyst to speed up delignification and increase pulp yields. Anthraquinone's increased use in pulping systems helped alleviate process bottlenecks and promoted lower levels of sulfur release into the environment. D. Dimmel of IPC demonstrates AQ works by movel electrontransfer mechanism.
Cold corrugating was introduced using cold or room temperature corrugating rolls that bonded the formed flutes to a similarly cold liner. This process created a substantial reduction in energy costs and led to the development of a cold starch adhesive with a short setup time.
April 26, 1977
A U.S. patent was assigned to F.P. Lodzinski for his research on optical property measurement and control systems.
IPC's development of the cold corrugating adhesive led to the construction of an apparatus, the double-backer simulator, designed and built to evaluate adhesive formulations. This simulator evaluated adhesives for green and final bond strength formation at simulated high double-backer speeds.
June 27, 1978
A U.S. patent was assigned to D.C. Johnson and M.D. Nicholson for their research on a solvent system for polysaccharides.
G. Baum and H. Bornhoeft presented a research paper titled "Estimating Poison Ratios in Paper Using Ultrasonic Techniques."
July 3, 1979
A U.S. patent was assigned to L.R. Dearth and F.P. Lodzinski for their research on an optical property measurement system and method.
1980s IPC research efforts cover a wide range of areas, including MAPPS (Modular Analysis of Pulp and Paper Systems) development, conifer cloning, corrosion control, impulse drying, strength property measurement using ultrasound, PCB analysis, fast-growing hybrid aspen, black liquor combustion research, and scanning electron microscopy.
Microsphere retention systems improved consistency, formation, and productivity due to increased drainage.
Gunnar Nicholson, a TAPPI Gold Medal winner and a notable industrialist, donated $1 million to the Institute to establish a fund encouraging student and faculty exchanges with corresponding institutions in Sweden.
Precipitated CaCO3 made alkaline papermaking possible in areas where lime could not be obtained from the ground. This resulted in a net 2-3 point increase in the brightness of finished grade paper.
Extended nip processing developed during the mid-1980s improved production and quality and made it possible to have lower headbox consistency.
Forest product research in growing eucalyptus trees and research in pulping technology contributed to new strains and grades of hardwood pulp suitable for a wide variety of end use products. Eucalyptus pulps were used to provide increased capacity for papermaking grades, increased softness in tissue and towel grades, and because they offered a new unique combination of strength and flexibility.
Environmental pressures to reduce the amount of bleaching chemicals used led to the development of several processes for extended delignification. These processes reduced the kappa numbers by 50%. Pulps made by extended delignification were then bleached cost-effectively with a variety of bleaching agents and sequences.
IPC in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and the American Paper Institute conducted a full-scale plant trial of the cold corrugating process at a Union Camp box plant in Savannah, Georgia. Commercially available equipment was purchased and installed with minor modifications.
Drs. Mann, G. Baum, and C. Habeger of IPC published research on the determination of all nine orthrotropic elastic constants for machine-made paper.
April 15, 1980
A Canadian patent was assigned to D. Johnson and M.D. Nicholson for their research on solvent systems for polysaccharides.
June 30, 1980
A Japanese patent was assigned to Shu-Tang Han for his research on fibrous material and its treatment.
A U.S. patent was assigned to G.A. Baum and C.C. Habeger for their research on the on?line ultrasonic velocity gauge.
IPC assisted in the development of a rubber platen caliper gauge to measure paper thickness. IPC conducted research on ultrasonic measurements in the thickness direction of paper.
May 10, 1983
A Canadian patent was issued to G.A. Baum and C.C. Habeger for their research on the on?line ultrasonic velocity gauge.
IPC was awarded a research contract by the U.S. Department of Energy to study high intensity drying technologies that led to the development of impulse drying.
Laboratories were able, for the first time, to analyze dioxins in parts per trillion. At this point, ultraminute quantities of dioxin were discovered in some paper samples. Substantial effort and research by industry was expended to identify the sources and the various products and effluents that contained dioxin. Within three years, many millions of dollars had been spent, and solutions were available to minimize the presence of dioxin in paper manufacturing.
Richard A. Matula was named fifth president of IPC.
IPC research on ultrasonic polar measurements of specific stiffness identified variations in polar angle across the paper machine and helped describe how transverse jet flows affect paper properties.
October 1, 1986
IPC was awarded a research contract by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop on-machine sensors to measure paper and its mechanical properties.
October 28, 1986
A U.S. patent was assigned to D.T. Clay and T.B. Cartwright for their research on the method for drying pulping liquor to a burnable solid.
December 11, 1987
IPC's Board of Trustees reaffirmed the historical three-fold mission and approved a plan to create an alliance with the Georgia Institute of Technology and relocate the Institute to Atlanta, Georgia.
An architectural firm was selected to design the Institute's new facility on the Georgia Tech campus.
IPC Board of Trustees decided to relocate the Institute operations to temporary quarters in Atlanta during the summer of
September 6, 1988
A U.S. patent was assigned to C.C. Habeger and G.A. Baum for their research on the ultrasonic transducer.
IPC was awarded a research contract by the U.S. Department of Energy to study black liquor delivery systems and nozzle spray design for improved recovery boiler performance.
IPC modified its laboratory single-facer to determine the strength of the green (uncured) adhesive bond at the time it exited the pressure roll nip.
Institute received certificate of authorization from the Georgia Department of Education to operate in Georgia. Facilities on the comer of 14th and Hemphill Streets were leased by IPC from the Georgia Tech Foundation. The building was completely refurbished and occupied in July as the temporary quarters for the total operations and the permanent facility for industrial research.
Institute amended and restated its Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws, effective July 1, 1989.
June 11, 1989
The total IPC graduates reached 1302.
A U.S. patent was assigned to G.A. Baum and C.C. Habeger for their research on the method and apparatus for measuring fiber orientation anisotropy.
The Institute's accreditation was transferred from the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.
July 1, 1989
The Institute of Paper Chemistry was renamed the Institute of Paper Science and Technology. A new logo helped to establish the Institute's new name and preserve the familiar woodcut drawing from the traditional logo.
The IPST first employees arrived in Atlanta to unpack and open the Institute for business. The temporary facility was named the IPST Industrial Research Facility.
August 1, 1989
IPST and Georgia Tech established a formal alliance agreement.
September 20, 1989
IPST students attended their first full day of classes in Atlanta.
IPST received a $15 million bequest from the estate of Florence Thomson Kress to endow the Otto Kress Scholarship Fund.
October 31, 1989
IPST became a member of the University Center in Georgia, a consortium of 18 public and private educational institutions in Atlanta and Athens, Georgia.
IPST received notification of a $1.65 million challenge grant from The Robert W. Woodruff Foundation toward the purchase of the Industrial Research Facility.
IPST membership included 35 supporting members, 21 associate members, and five subscribing organizations.
Rule 41, Item 222 was modified to use either the face, the weight, or the ECT of the corrugated carton for determining the board grade use of a given product.
March 25, 1990
IPST held the first graduation ceremony in Atlanta.
May 10, 1990
A Ground Breaking Ceremony was held for the Paper Tricentennial Building. International guests from the paper industry, government officials, university presidents, and executives from the business community were in attendance.
July 12, 1990
A U.S. patent was assigned to M. Rafique Uddin for his research on somatic embryogenesis in gyrnnosperms.
The IRF Capital Campaign was successfully concluded with IPST obtaining the needed funds to match The Woodruff Foundation's challenge grant for the purchase the IRF.
September 18, 1990
A construction contract was signed for IPST's Paper Tricentennial. Building on the Georgia Institute of Technology's campus, four blocks from the IRF.
November 30, 1990
IPST closed sale on purchase of Industrial Research Facility (IRF).
Research conducted by J. Wozniak and D. Dimmel at IPST established the first use of a pulping catalyst prepared from lignin, a by-product of the pulping process.
IPST was awarded a contract by the Library of Congress to evaluate deacidification of paper and paper permanence.
March 26 and September 17, 1991
Two U.S. patents were assigned to D.R. Dimmel and J.C. Wozniak for their research on methods for the delignification of wood pulp utilizing fused ring quinone compounds prepared from lignin or lignin derived substances.
IPST in cooperation with TAPPI and Paprican published the Thesaurus of Pulp and Paper Terms which contained more than 22,000 hierarchically arranged words.
IPST established a marketing agreement with Arbor Publishing in Sweden to distribute the Thesaurus publication in Scandinavia.
May 22, 1991
IPST closed the sale with the City of Appleton on four acres of the Appleton campus.
July 29, 1991
IPST received a major financial gift from alumnus, Dr. William R. Haselton, and his wife, Fran, to fund the purchase of furnishings and automation equipment for the new library in the PTB.
September 17, 1991
A U.S. patent was assigned to D.R. Dimmel and J.C. Wozniak for their research on lignin derived quinonic compound mixtures useful for the delignification of cellulosic materials.
IPST and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) established an agreement to transfer RIT'S publications and information service to IPST.
Abstract Bulletin and PAPERCHEM production increased to more than 15,000 abstracts per year and three new search features were added to the IPST PAPERCHEM database, which included online document ordering.
IPST received a contract from the U.S. Bureau of Printing and Engraving to use radioactive isotopes to evaluate water and ink penetration in paper. IPST research on short-dwell coaters by C. Aidun has led to a major breakthrough in coating systems and an announcement by Valmet of a new coater capable of operating at speeds of 1800 meters per minute.
An agreement was established between IPST and TAPPI to exchange services. As part of an agreement with the Rochester Institute of Technology, IPST began publishing a new Graphic Arts Bulletin covering the science and technology of the printing and graphic arts industries.
March 31, 1992
IPST closed sale with JLN & Associates on 17 acres on the Appleton campus.
April 7, 1992
A U.S. patent was assigned to IPST for research performed by D. Orloff, W. Rudemiller, and G. Kloth on impulse drying methods and apparatus for the drying web.
June 19, 1992
IPST's academic accreditation was reaffirmed by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools until the year 2002 with no response required by IPST.
IPST's new library in the PTB received a microfilm gift of Chemical Abstracts (from 1907 to 1992) from the American Chemical Society, Chemical Abstract Service.
September 4, 1992
IPST received the keys to the Paper Tricentennial Building at 500 10th Street, N.W., Atlanta, Georgia.
October 1, 1992
IPST created a new Affiliate Organization Program to encourage annual corporate support of IPST's academic and service programs.
October 16, 1992
IPST's offices moved from the IRF to the newly completed PTB.
The William Haselton Library catalog was converted to electronic format and became accessible to the faculty and students of IPST and the Georgia Institute of Technology. 1993
January 1, 1993
The American Paper Institute, the Forest Products Association, and the American Forest Council combined to create the American Forest and Paper Association.
March 20, 1993
The first graduation was held in the Otto Kress Auditorium of the new PTB.
April 6, 1993
A formal dedication of the Haselton Library was held preceding the 1993 Executives' Conference at the PTB.
April 7, 1993
The American Forest and Paper Association (AFPA) held its first Executive Committee meeting at the new PTB.
April 8, 1993
IPST's Paper Tricentennial Building (PTB) was dedicated as part of the 1993 Executives' Conference, which was attended by senior executives of the international paper industry, governmental officials, presidents of local universities, and other officials of the business community. IPST's Paper Tricentennial Building.