Gigatechnologies are humanity's largest engineered systems in which we manipulate matter, energy, and information. Research in nanotechnology is transforming the fields of materials, medicine, energy, computing, and manufacturing in profound ways. At the opposite end of the size spectrum, science and engineering at the gigascale is fundamentally different than science at the nano-, micro-, macro-, and mega-scales, but scant attention has been devoted to the giga-sciences. Examples of gigatechnologies are regional electric power grids, networks of highways and roads, municipal water systems, and clusters of buildings that aggregate to form blocks, neighborhoods, and cities. Studying gigatechnology will allow us how to minimize the bad, and emphasize the good properties that emerge in our cities, leading to greater sustainability, resiliency, and prosperity.

Can Virtual Water Trade Save Water Resources?
Xi Liu, Huibin Du, Zengkai Zhang, John C.Crittenden, Michael L.Lahr, Juan Moreno-Cruz, Dabo Guan, Zhifu Mi, Jian Zuo, 2019, Water Research, 163, 114848, DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.07.015.

Seven Approaches to Manage Complex Coupled Human and Natural Systems: A Sustainability Toolbox
Zhongming Lu, Osvaldo Broesicke, Michael E. Chang, Junchen Yan, Ming Xu, Sybil Derrible, James R. Mihelcic, Benedict R. Schwegler, John C. Crittenden, 2019, Environmental Science and Technology, 53, 16, 9341-9351, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b01982.

Research Development on Sustainable Urban Infrastructure From 1991 to 2017: A Bibliometric Analysis to Inform Future Innovations
Huibin Du, Diyi Liu, Zhongming Lu, John C. Crittenden, Guozhu Mao, Shuai Wang, Hongyang Zou, 2019, Earth’s Future, 7, DOI: 10.1029/2018EF001117.

Measuring Urban Environmental Sustainability Performance in China: A Multi-scale Comparison among Different Cities, Urban Clusters, and Geographic Regions
Yu Tao, Feng Li, John C. Crittenden, Zhongming Lu, Weixin Ou, Yingshi Song, 2019, Cities, 94, 200-210, DOI:  10.1016/j.cities.2019.06.014.

Presentation - The Water-Energy Nexus: Technology and Policy
John C. Crittenden, Osvaldo A. Broesicke, Junchen Yan, presented at the 4th Annual IWA Summit on Urban Water, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, P.R. China, November 25-27, 2018. Download ~2.8 MB

Life Cycle Assessment of Small-Scale Greywater Reclamation Systems Combined with Conventional Centralized Water Systems for the City of Atlanta, Georgia
Hyunju Jeong, Osvaldo A. Broesicke, Bob Drew, John C. Crittenden, 2018, Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 333-342, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.193.

Presentation - Summary of Sustainability Work of the Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems
Junchen Yan, Thomas Igou, Osvaldo Broesicke, Yongsheng Chen, John C. Crittenden, presentation, August 9, 2018. Download PDF ~2.6 MB

Analyzing Spatio-temporal Changes and Trade-offs to Support the Supply of Multiple Ecosystem Services in Beijing, China
Xiao Sun, Zhongming Lu, Feng Li, John C. Crittenden, 2018, Ecological Indicators, 94, 117–129, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.06.049.

Gigatechnology: Developing Sustainable Urban Infrastructure to Solve Gigaton Problems
John C. Crittenden, presented at the South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China, June 3, 2018. Download 6.6 MB

Impacts of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems, and Rainwater Harvesting on Water Demand, Carbon Dioxide, and NOx Emissions for Atlanta
Jean-Ann James, Sangwoo Sung, Hyunju Jeong, Osvaldo A. Broesicke, Steven P. French, Duo Li, John C. Crittenden. 2018, Environmental Science & Technology, 52 (1), 3–10, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b01115.

Urban Expansion Simulation and the Spatio-Temporal Changes of Ecosystem Services, a Case Study in Atlanta Metropolitan Area, USA
Xiao Sun, John C. Crittenden, Feng Li, Zhongming Lu, Xiaolin Dou, 2018, Science of the Total Environment, 622–623, 974–987, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.062.

Market Potential for Smart Growth Neighbourhoods in the USA: A Latent Class Analysis on Heterogeneous Preference and Choice
Zhongming Lu, Frank Southworth, John C. Crittenden, Ellen Dunham-Jones, Urban Studies, 2014, 52 (16), 3001-3017, DOI: 10.1177/0042098014550956.

Towards Automating the Development of Federated Distributed Simulations for Modeling Sustainable Urban Infrastructures
Ajitesh Jain, Richard Fujimoto, John C. Crittenden, Mengmeng Liu, Jongchan Kim, Zhongming Lu, Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Winter Simulation Conference, 2668-2679, Huntington Beach, CA, USA, December 6-9, 2015, DOI: 10.1109/WSC.2015.7408374.

Index of Network Resilience for Urban Water Distribution Systems
Arka Pandit, John C. Crittenden, 2016, International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 12 (1-2), 120-142, DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2016.075865.

Fractal Dimensions of Metropolitan Area Road Networks and the Impacts on the Urban Built Environment Zhongming Lu, Hong Zhang, Frank Southworth, John C. Crittenden, 2016, Ecological Indicators, 70, 285-296, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.06.016.

An Integrated Framework for Managing the Complex Interdependence Between Infrastructures and the Socioeconomic Environment: An Application in Metropolitan Atlanta
Zhongming Lu, John C. Crittenden, Frank Southworth, Ellen Dunham-Jones, 2017, Urban Studies, 54 (12), 2874-2893, DOI: 10.1177/0042098016652555.

Create More Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure
John C. Crittenden, plenary talk presented to the Beijing Humboldt Forum, Beijing, China, September 16, 2017. Download ~6.5 MB

Gigatechnology: The Largest Infrastructures in Which Humans Manipulate Matter and Energy
John C. Crittenden, presented at the inauguration of The Research Center for Green Buildings and Sponge Cities at the Georgia Tech Tianjin University Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen, China, May 20, 2017. Download ~7.7 MB